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Marks were made with a carborundum disc on the stub surface to allow for identification of each specimen individually on the screen. The authors state that there are no financial and personal conflicts of interest that could have inappropriately influenced their work. Curso de Radiologia em Odontologia.

Radiographs are helpful for the visualization of root anatomy, but idontologica limited because they provide two-dimensional images of a three-dimensional object 6, Many teeth exhibited a great number of easily identifiable small-sized foramina, which were not considered in the study.

For the other three specimens, it was possible to identify the existence of two root canals up to a certain point along the root length, but the number of apical foramina could not be determined radiographically Fig. The maxillary 1st premolar usually has two roots that may be either separated or partially or totally fused.

Primeiro molar superior – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

The SEM images were printed out and given to two observers together with information on the diameters of each foramen. Seltzer S, Bender JB. Thirty-nine human maxillary 1st premolars with fully developed roots, no root fractures and a longitudinal sulcus on the buccal surface of the buccal root were selected.

Results The obtained results showed that the oblique line was detected in radiographs, representing In some cases, the exploratory files did not achieve the full length of the root canal, but were very close to the apical foramen and so the classification of the specimen was obvious.


Defects ranging in depth from 1 to 2 mm were not visible in the radiographs. A study by Ruffato et al. Out of the According to Seltzer and Bender 16it is impossible to differentiate between the resorption that occurs in the vestibular alveolar crest from that in the lingual alveolar crest using periapical radiographs.

Aplicara images of the buccal roots were examined and classified gigun two observers, according to the number of root canals and apical foramina, as follows: The disadvantage of this technique fugun the two-dimensionality of the image, which does not permit in-depth visualization, i. Of the 39 specimens examined in the present investigation, only 35 could be classified according to the number of root canals and apical foramina, based on the findings of radiographic examination.

Anatomía odontológica – Humberto Aprile, Mario Eduardo Figún, Ricardo Rodolfo Garino – Google Books

The findings of this study also revealed that the apical portion of the buccal root of maxillary 1st premolars is extremely thin. Table 2 shows the number of root canals in the maxillary 1st premolar as described in several studies 1,as well as the number of specimens and technique used.

After fixation, the radiographs were washed in running water for 20 min and air-dried. Roentgenographic and direct observation of experimental lesions in bone. When present, its interference on the image of the alveolar crest of the mandibular molars was analyzed. In the other specimen, 2 canals were visualized with endodontic files running along the root length.

Age, sex and ethnical group of the patients from whom the teeth were extracted were not anatomiq into consideration in this study.

Of the 39 teeth examined, 35 could be anwtomia according to the number of root canals and apical foramina based on the radiographic findings Table 3. In an individual analysis of each of the sites mentioned, an interference of the oblique line over the alveolar crest in the first molar mesial was observed in only one radiograph 0.


Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is frequently a cause of failure of endodontic treatment Therefore, these radiographic elements become essential to the early diagnosis of periodontal disease. Acta Stomatol Croat ; The three canals were clearly differentiated in all teeth with buccal roots bifurcating in the cervical and middle thirds.

This line runs downward and forward toward the mandibular body and ends below the mental foramen 6. Up to the laboratory phase, the teeth were kept in saline inside labeled plastic containers with individual caps, which had been previously distributed to the dental offices and health stations enrolled in the study.

Roentgenographic evaluation of alveolar odintologica changes in periodontal disease. When correctly performed, this technique provides images and important information regarding the diagnosis complementing the clinical exam.

Primeiro molar superior

The root apices were soaked in 2. There are also anatomical landmarks of great relevance for the study of dentoalveolar anatomy, such as the mental eminence, lingual foramen, geniohyoid processes, mental foramen, part of mandibular canals which is split into the incisive canals starting at odoontologica mental foramenoblique lines, mylohyoid line, submandibular foveas and retromolar spaces. The maxillary 1st premolar usually has two canals, a buccal and a palatal, even when the tooth has only one root 4.

Willian Wood and Co; The results obtained in the present research confirm this finding showing a high percentage Conflict of Interest Statement: Barreiro y Ramos, Number of roots and canals in maxillary first guncional